CBS News October 2010

CBS Laboratory Manual Series 2

Food and Indoor Fungi

Editor(s): R.A. Samson, J. Houbraken, U. Thrane, J.C. Frisvad & B. Andersen
Details: 390 pp., fully illustrated with more than 180 full colour pictures (A4 format), Hardcover, 2010

This book is the second in the new CBS Laboratory Manual Series and is based on the seventh edition of INTRODUCTION TO FOOD AND AIRBORNE FUNGI. This new version, FOOD AND INDOOR FUNGI, has been transformed into a practical user’s manual to the most common micro-fungi found in our immediate environment – on our food and in our houses. The layout of the book starts at the beginning with the detection and isolation of food borne fungi and indoor fungi in chapters 1 and 2, describing the different sampling techniques required in the different habitats. Chapter 3 deals with the three different approaches to identification: morphology, genetics and chemistry. It lists cultivation media used for the different genera and describes step by step how to make microscope slides and tape preparations for morphological identification. The chapter also describes how to do molecular and chemical identification from scratch, how to evaluate the results and warns about pitfalls. Chapter 4 gives all the identification keys, first for the major phyla (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Zygomycetes) common on food and indoors, then to the different genera in the Zygomycetes and the Ascomycetes, with a large section on the anamorphic fungi and a section for yeasts. The section on anamorphic fungi contains two keys to the different genera: a dichotomous key and a synoptic key. For each genus a key to the species treated is provided, followed by entries on the different species. For each species colour plates are accompanied by macro- and a micro-morphological descriptions, information on molecular and chemical identification markers, production of mycotoxins, habitats and physiological and ecological characteristics. The book is concluded with an extensive reference list and appendices on the associated mycobiota on different food types and indoor environments, mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites, a glossary on the mycological terms used in the book and lastly a detailed appendix on the media used for detection and identification. …..More info

Order in our webshop

CBS in the news: Scedosporium on TV

Sybren de Hoog and Bert Gerrits van den Ende featured in an episode of the ZDF science program “Abenteuer Wissen” on Germany’s second TV network. They explained the background of a brain infection after near-drowning of a child, published by Mursch et al. (Child’s Nervous System 22: 189-192, 2005). The child was saved thanks to timely diagnostics and appropriate therapy. The 30 minutes program gave some further unexpected examples of fungal ecology and its impact on human society. … read more

Studies in Mycology No. 67

Species and ecological diversity within the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales)

Author(s): Konstanze Bensch, J.Z.(Ewald) Groenewald, Jan Dijksterhuis, Mieke Starink-Willemse, Birgitte Andersen, Brett A. Summerell, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Frank M. Dugan, Hans-Josef Schroers, Uwe Braun and Pedro W. Crous
Details: 96 pp., fully illustrated with colour pictures (A4 format), paperback, 2010

The genus Cladosporium is one of the largest genera of dematiaceous hyphomycetes, and is characterised by a coronate scar structure, conidia in acropetal chains and Davidiella teleomorphs. Based on morphology and DNA phylogeny, the species complexes of C. herbarum and C. sphaerospermum have been resolved, resulting in the elucidation of numerous new taxa. In the present study, more than 200 isolates belonging to the C. cladosporioides complex were examined and phylogenetically analysed on the basis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences. For the saprobic, widely distributed species Cladosporium cladosporioides, both a neotype and epitype are designated in order to specify a well established circumscription and concept of this species. Cladosporium tenuissimum and C. oxysporum, two saprobes abundant in the tropics, are epitypified and shown to be allied to, but distinct from C. cladosporioides. Twenty-two species are newly described on the basis of phylogenetic characters and cryptic morphological differences. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species within the C. cladosporioides complex, which represents a monophyletic subclade within the genus, are shape, width, length, septation and surface ornamentation of conidia and conidiophores; length and branching patterns of conidial chains and hyphal shape, width and arrangement. Many of the treated species, e.g., C. acalyphae, C. angustisporum, C. australiense, C. basiinflatum, C. chalastosporoides, C. colocasiae, C. cucumerinum, C. exasperatum, C. exile, C. flabelliforme, C. gamsianum, and C. globisporum are currently known only from specific hosts, or have a restricted geographical distribution. A key to all species recognised within the C. cladosporioides complex is provided. …..More info

Order in our webshop

From Culture Collection to Genetic Resource Centre

by Prof. dr P.W. Crous

For more than 100 years the CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre has been the world’s largest centre of living fungal biodiversity. And yet many, if not most species await description (likely 80% of all eukaryotes). It is widely accepted that we urgently need to extend understanding of biodiversity. The call for intensified efforts to document and protect biodiversity was a key policy declaration from the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. Calibrating Europe’s Biodiversity by Using DNA Barcodes (ECBOL) is complementary to these initiatives. ECBOL, which is coordinated at European level by the CBS-KNAW as part of the EDIT FP6 programme (European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy), will cut conservation costs by up-scaling and centralising the production of reference data, while at the same time providing a basis for molecular-based biodiversity monitoring in areas relevant for conversation. The complexities in gaining species identifications of microbes have immediate serious economic, societal and environmental implications. Customs officers, public health officials, ecologists, pharmaceutical companies, resource managers and many others desire an unequivocal answer to the question what species a fungal isolate belongs to. The answer is often critical to the health and prosperity of society.

CBS is host to the world’s largest living collection of fungi, many of which play crucial roles in agriculture, industry and medicine. Transforming the CBS culture collection into a searchable DNA genetic resource, will have huge implications for research both nationally and internationally. To this end the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences has recently decided to support a project aiming to obtain DNA barcodes (ITS and LSU nrDNA) for the entire CBS collection within the next 4 years. Starting immediately, a team of three technicians are busy generating barcodes of various groups of fungi housed at the CBS, with the aim to upscale in 2011 to a team of six technicians in total, who will work under the guidance of Dr Ursula Eberhardt as Laboratory Manager.